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Consul is a tool for discovering and configuring services in your infrastructure.

A Vert.x client allowing applications to interact with a Consul system via blocking and non-blocking HTTP API.

Using Vert.x Consul Client

To use this project, add the following dependency to the dependencies section of your build descriptor:

  • Maven (in your pom.xml):

<dependency>
  <groupId>io.vertx</groupId>
  <artifactId>vertx-consul-client</artifactId>
  <version>3.5.0</version>
</dependency>
  • Gradle (in your build.gradle file):

compile 'io.vertx:vertx-consul-client:3.5.0'

Creating a client

Just use factory method:

require 'vertx-consul/consul_client'

client = VertxConsul::ConsulClient.create(vertx)

Also the client can be configured with an options.

require 'vertx-consul/consul_client'

options = {
  'host' => "consul.example.com"
}

client = VertxConsul::ConsulClient.create(vertx, options)

The following configuration is supported by the consul client:

host

Consul host. Defaults to localhost

port

Consul HTTP API port. Defaults to 8500

timeout

Sets the amount of time (in milliseconds) after which if the request does not return any data within the timeout period an failure will be passed to the handler and the request will be closed.

aclToken

The ACL token. When provided, the client will use this token when making requests to the Consul by providing the "?token" query parameter. When not provided, the empty token, which maps to the 'anonymous' ACL policy, is used.

dc

The datacenter name. When provided, the client will use it when making requests to the Consul by providing the "?dc" query parameter. When not provided, the datacenter of the consul agent is queried.

ConsulClient options extends WebClientOptions from vertx-web-client module, therefore a lot of settings are available. Please see the documentation.

Using the API

The client API is represented by ConsulClient. The API is very similar to Consul’s HTTP API that described in Consul API docs

Blocking queries

Certain endpoints support a feature called a "blocking query." A blocking query is used to wait for a potential change using long polling. Any endpoint that supports blocking also provide a unique identifier (index) representing the current state of the requested resource. The following configuration is used to perform blocking queries:

index

value indicating that the client wishes to wait for any changes subsequent to that index.

wait

parameter specifying a maximum duration for the blocking request. This is limited to 10 minutes.

opts = {
  'index' => lastIndex,
  'wait' => "1m"
}

A critical note is that the return of a blocking request is no guarantee of a change. It is possible that the timeout was reached or that there was an idempotent write that does not affect the result of the query.

Key/Value Store

The KV endpoints are used to access Consul’s simple key/value store, useful for storing service configuration or other metadata. The following endpoints are supported:

  • To manage updates of individual keys, deletes of individual keys or key prefixes, and fetches of individual keys or key prefixes

  • To manage updates or fetches of multiple keys inside a single, atomic transaction

Get key-value pair from store

Consul client can return the value for certain key

consulClient.get_value("key") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "retrieved value: #{res['value']}"
    puts "modify index: #{res['modifyIndex']}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

…​or it can return all key-value pairs with the given prefix

consulClient.get_values("prefix") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "modify index: #{res['index']}"
    res['list'].each do |kv|
      puts "retrieved value: #{kv['value']}"
    end
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

The returned key-value object contains these fields (see documentation):

createIndex

the internal index value that represents when the entry was created.

modifyIndex

the last index that modified this key

lockIndex

the number of times this key has successfully been acquired in a lock

key

the key

flags

the flags attached to this entry. Clients can choose to use this however makes sense for their application

value

the value

session

the session that owns the lock

The modify index can be used for blocking queries:

opts = {
  'index' => modifyIndex,
  'wait' => "1m"
}

consulClient.get_value_with_options("key", opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "retrieved value: #{res['value']}"
    puts "new modify index: #{res['modifyIndex']}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Put key-value pair to store

consulClient.put_value("key", "value") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    opResult = res ? "success" : "fail"
    puts "result of the operation: #{opResult}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Put request with options also accepted

opts = {
  'flags' => 42,
  'casIndex' => modifyIndex,
  'acquireSession' => "acquireSessionID",
  'releaseSession' => "releaseSessionID"
}

consulClient.put_value_with_options("key", "value", opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    opResult = res ? "success" : "fail"
    puts "result of the operation: #{opResult}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

The list of the query options that can be used with a PUT request:

flags

This can be used to specify an unsigned value between 0 and 264-1. Clients can choose to use this however makes sense for their application.

casIndex

This flag is used to turn the PUT into a Check-And-Set operation. This is very useful as a building block for more complex synchronization primitives. If the index is 0, Consul will only put the key if it does not already exist. If the index is non-zero, the key is only set if the index matches the ModifyIndex of that key.

acquireSession

This flag is used to turn the PUT into a lock acquisition operation. This is useful as it allows leader election to be built on top of Consul. If the lock is not held and the session is valid, this increments the LockIndex and sets the Session value of the key in addition to updating the key contents. A key does not need to exist to be acquired. If the lock is already held by the given session, then the LockIndex is not incremented but the key contents are updated. This lets the current lock holder update the key contents without having to give up the lock and reacquire it.

releaseSession

This flag is used to turn the PUT into a lock release operation. This is useful when paired with acquireSession as it allows clients to yield a lock. This will leave the LockIndex unmodified but will clear the associated Session of the key. The key must be held by this session to be unlocked.

Transactions

When connected to Consul 0.7 and later, client allows to manage updates or fetches of multiple keys inside a single, atomic transaction. KV is the only available operation type, though other types of operations may be added in future versions of Consul to be mixed with key/value operations (see documentation).

request = {
  'operations' => [
    {
      'key' => "key1",
      'value' => "value1",
      'type' => "SET"
    },
    {
      'key' => "key2",
      'value' => "value2",
      'type' => "SET"
    }
  ]
}

consulClient.transaction(request) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "succeeded results: #{res['results'].length}"
    puts "errors: #{res['errors'].length}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Delete key-value pair

At last, Consul client allows to delete key-value pair from store:

consulClient.delete_value("key") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "complete"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

…​or all key-value pairs with corresponding key prefix

consulClient.delete_values("prefix") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "complete"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Services

One of the main goals of service discovery is to provide a catalog of available services. To that end, the agent provides a simple service definition format to declare the availability of a service and to potentially associate it with a health check.

Service registering

A service definition must include a name and may optionally provide an id, tags, address, port, and checks.

opts = {
  'name' => "serviceName",
  'id' => "serviceId",
  'tags' => ["tag1", "tag2"],
  'checkOptions' => {
    'ttl' => "10s"
  },
  'address' => "10.0.0.1",
  'port' => 8048
}
name

the name of service

id

the id is set to the name if not provided. It is required that all services have a unique ID per node, so if names might conflict then unique IDs should be provided.

tags

list of values that are opaque to Consul but can be used to distinguish between primary or secondary nodes, different versions, or any other service level labels.

address

used to specify a service-specific IP address. By default, the IP address of the agent is used, and this does not need to be provided.

port

used as well to make a service-oriented architecture simpler to configure; this way, the address and port of a service can be discovered.

checks

associated health checks

These options used to register service in catalog:

consulClient.register_service(opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Service successfully registered"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end

}

Service discovery

Consul client allows to obtain actual list of the nodes providing a service

consulClient.catalog_service_nodes("serviceName") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "found #{res['list'].length} services"
    puts "consul state index: #{res['index']}"
    res['list'].each do |service|
      puts "Service node: #{service['node']}"
      puts "Service address: #{service['address']}"
      puts "Service port: #{service['port']}"
    end
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

It is possible to obtain this list with the statuses of the associated health checks. The result can be filtered by check status.

consulClient.health_service_nodes("serviceName", passingOnly) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "found #{res['list'].length} services"
    puts "consul state index: #{res['index']}"
    res['list'].each do |entry|
      puts "Service node: #{entry['node']}"
      puts "Service address: #{entry['service']['address']}"
      puts "Service port: #{entry['service']['port']}"
    end
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

There are additional parameters for services queries

queryOpts = {
  'tag' => "tag1",
  'near' => "_agent",
  'blockingOptions' => {
    'index' => lastIndex
  }
}
tag

by default, all nodes matching the service are returned. The list can be filtered by tag using the tag query parameter

near

adding the optional near parameter with a node name will sort the node list in ascending order based on the estimated round trip time from that node. Passing near=_agent will use the agent’s node for the sort.

blockingOptions

the blocking qyery options

Then the request should look like

consulClient.health_service_nodes_with_options("serviceName", passingOnly, queryOpts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "found #{res['list'].length} services"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end

}

Deregister service

Service can be deregistered by its ID:

consulClient.deregister_service("serviceId") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Service successfully deregistered"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Health Checks

One of the primary roles of the agent is management of system-level and application-level health checks. A health check is considered to be application-level if it is associated with a service. If not associated with a service, the check monitors the health of the entire node.

opts = {
  'tcp' => "localhost:4848",
  'interval' => "1s"
}

The list of check options that supported by Consul client is:

id

the check ID

name

check name

script

local path to checking script. Also you should set checking interval

http

HTTP address to check. Also you should set checking interval

ttl

Time to Live of check

tcp

TCP address to check. Also you should set checking interval

interval

checking interval in Go’s time format which is sequence of decimal numbers, each with optional fraction and a unit suffix, such as "300ms", "-1.5h" or "2h45m". Valid time units are "ns", "us" (or "┬Ás"), "ms", "s", "m", "h"

notes

the check notes

serviceId

the service ID to associate the registered check with an existing service provided by the agent.

deregisterAfter

deregister timeout. This is optional field, which is a timeout in the same time format as Interval and TTL. If a check is associated with a service and has the critical state for more than this configured value, then its associated service (and all of its associated checks) will automatically be deregistered. The minimum timeout is 1 minute, and the process that reaps critical services runs every 30 seconds, so it may take slightly longer than the configured timeout to trigger the deregistration. This should generally be configured with a timeout that’s much, much longer than any expected recoverable outage for the given service.

status

the check status to specify the initial state of the health check

The Name field is mandatory, as is one of Script, HTTP, TCP or TTL. Script, TCP and HTTP also require that Interval be set. If an ID is not provided, it is set to Name. You cannot have duplicate ID entries per agent, so it may be necessary to provide an ID.

consulClient.register_check(opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "check successfully registered"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Events

The Consul provides a mechanism to fire a custom user event to an entire datacenter. These events are opaque to Consul, but they can be used to build scripting infrastructure to do automated deploys, restart services, or perform any other orchestration action.

To send user event only its name is required

consulClient.fire_event("eventName") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Event sent"
    puts "id: #{res['id']}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Also additional options can be specified.

node

regular expression to filter recipients by node name

service

regular expression to filter recipients by service

tag

regular expression to filter recipients by tag

payload

an optional body of the event. The body contents are opaque to Consul and become the "payload" of the event

opts = {
  'tag' => "tag",
  'payload' => "message"
}

consulClient.fire_event_with_options("eventName", opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Event sent"
    puts "id: #{res['id']}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

The Consul Client supports queries for obtain the most recent events known by the agent. Events are broadcast using the gossip protocol, so they have no global ordering nor do they make a promise of delivery. Agents only buffer the most recent entries. The current buffer size is 256, but this value could change in the future.

consulClient.list_events() { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Consul index: #{res['index']}"
    res['list'].each do |event|
      puts "Event id: #{event['id']}"
      puts "Event name: #{event['name']}"
      puts "Event payload: #{event['payload']}"
    end
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

The Consul Index can be used to prepare blocking requests:

opts = {
  'name' => "eventName",
  'blockingOptions' => {
    'index' => lastIndex
  }
}

consulClient.list_events_with_options(opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Consul index: #{res['index']}"
    res['list'].each do |event|
      puts "Event id: #{event['id']}"
    end
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Sessions

Consul provides a session mechanism which can be used to build distributed locks. Sessions act as a binding layer between nodes, health checks, and key/value data. When a session is constructed, a node name, a list of health checks, a behavior, a TTL, and a lock-delay may be provided.

opts = {
  'node' => "nodeId",
  'behavior' => "RELEASE"
}
lockDelay

can be specified as a duration string using an 's' suffix for seconds. The default is '15s'.

name

can be used to provide a human-readable name for the Session.

node

must refer to a node that is already registered, if specified. By default, the agent’s own node name is used.

checks

is used to provide a list of associated health checks. It is highly recommended that, if you override this list, you include the default serfHealth.

behavior

can be set to either release or delete. This controls the behavior when a session is invalidated. By default, this is release, causing any locks that are held to be released. Changing this to delete causes any locks that are held to be deleted. delete is useful for creating ephemeral key/value entries.

ttl

is a duration string, and like LockDelay it can use s as a suffix for seconds. If specified, it must be between 10s and 86400s currently. When provided, the session is invalidated if it is not renewed before the TTL expires.

For full info see Consul Sessions internals

The newly constructed session is provided with a named ID that can be used to identify it. This ID can be used with the KV store to acquire locks: advisory mechanisms for mutual exclusion.

consulClient.create_session_with_options(opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Session successfully created"
    puts "id: #{res}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

And also to destroy it

consulClient.destroy_session(sessionId) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Session successfully destroyed"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Lists sessions belonging to a node

consulClient.list_node_sessions("nodeId") { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    res['list'].each do |session|
      puts "Session id: #{session['id']}"
      puts "Session node: #{session['node']}"
      puts "Session create index: #{session['createIndex']}"
    end
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

All of the read session endpoints support blocking queries and all consistency modes.

blockingOpts = {
  'index' => lastIndex
}

consulClient.list_sessions_with_options(blockingOpts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Found #{res['list'].length} sessions"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Nodes in datacenter

consulClient.catalog_nodes() { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "found #{res['list'].length} nodes"
    puts "consul state index #{res['index']}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

This endpoint supports blocking queries and sorting by distance from specified node

opts = {
  'near' => "_agent",
  'blockingOptions' => {
    'index' => lastIndex
  }
}

consulClient.catalog_nodes_with_options(opts) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "found #{res['list'].length} nodes"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Prepated Queries

This endpoint creates, updates, destroys, and executes prepared queries. Prepared queries allow you to register a complex service query and then execute it later via its ID or name to get a set of healthy nodes that provide a given service. This is particularly useful in combination with Consul’s DNS Interface as it allows for much richer queries than would be possible given the limited entry points exposed by DNS.

There are many parameters to creating a prepared query. For full details please see docs

dc

Specifies the datacenter to query. This will default to the datacenter of the agent being queried. This is specified as part of the URL as a query parameter.

name

Specifies an optional friendly name that can be used to execute a query instead of using its ID.

session

Specifies the ID of an existing session. This provides a way to automatically remove a prepared query when the given session is invalidated. If not given the prepared query must be manually removed when no longer needed.

token

Specifies the ACL token to use each time the query is executed. This allows queries to be executed by clients with lesser or even no ACL Token, so this should be used with care. The token itself can only be seen by clients with a management token. If the Token field is left blank or omitted, the client’s ACL Token will be used to determine if they have access to the service being queried. If the client does not supply an ACL Token, the anonymous token will be used.

service

Specifies the name of the service to query. This is required field.

failover

contains two fields, both of which are optional, and determine what happens if no healthy nodes are available in the local datacenter when the query is executed. It allows the use of nodes in other datacenters with very little configuration.

nearestN

Specifies that the query will be forwarded to up to NearestN other datacenters based on their estimated network round trip time using Network Coordinates from the WAN gossip pool. The median round trip time from the server handling the query to the servers in the remote datacenter is used to determine the priority.

datacenters

Specifies a fixed list of remote datacenters to forward the query to if there are no healthy nodes in the local datacenter. Datacenters are queried in the order given in the list. If this option is combined with NearestN, then the NearestN queries will be performed first, followed by the list given by Datacenters. A given datacenter will only be queried one time during a failover, even if it is selected by both NearestN and is listed in Datacenters.

onlyPassing

Specifies the behavior of the query’s health check filtering. If this is set to false, the results will include nodes with checks in the passing as well as the warning states. If this is set to true, only nodes with checks in the passing state will be returned.

tags

Specifies a list of service tags to filter the query results. For a service to pass the tag filter it must have all of the required tags, and none of the excluded tags (prefixed with !).

nodeMeta

Specifies a list of user-defined key/value pairs that will be used for filtering the query results to nodes with the given metadata values present.

dnsTtl

Specifies the TTL duration when query results are served over DNS. If this is specified, it will take precedence over any Consul agent-specific configuration.

templateType

is the query type, which must be name_prefix_match. This means that the template will apply to any query lookup with a name whose prefix matches the Name field of the template. In this example, any query for geo-db will match this query. Query templates are resolved using a longest prefix match, so it’s possible to have high-level templates that are overridden for specific services. Static queries are always resolved first, so they can also override templates.

templateRegexp

is an optional regular expression which is used to extract fields from the entire name, once this template is selected. In this example, the regular expression takes the first item after the "-" as the database name and everything else after as a tag. See the RE2 reference for syntax of this regular expression.

def = {
  'name' => "Query name",
  'service' => "service-${match(1)}-${match(2)}",
  'dcs' => ["dc1", "dc42"],
  'templateType' => "name_prefix_match",
  'templateRegexp' => "^find_(.+?)_(.+?)$"
}

If the query is successfully created, its ID will be provided

consulClient.create_prepared_query(def) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    queryId = res
    puts "Query created: #{queryId}"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

The prepared query can be executed by its id

consulClient.execute_prepared_query(id) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    response = res
    puts "Found #{response['nodes'].length} nodes"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

or by query string that must match template regexp

consulClient.execute_prepared_query("find_1_2") { |res_err,res|
  # matches template regexp "^find_(.+?)_(.+?)$"
  if (res_err == nil)
    response = res
    puts "Found #{response['nodes'].length} nodes"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Finally, ConsulClient allows you to modify, get or delete prepared queries

consulClient.delete_prepared_query(query) { |res_err,res|
  if (res_err == nil)
    puts "Query deleted"
  else
    res_err.print_stack_trace()
  end
}

Watches

Watches are a way of specifying a view of data (e.g. list of nodes, KV pairs, health checks) which is monitored for updates. When an update is detected, an Handler with AsyncResult is invoked. As an example, you could watch the status of health checks and notify when a check is critical.

require 'vertx-consul/watch'
VertxConsul::Watch.key("foo/bar", vertx).set_handler() { |res|
  if (res.succeeded?())
    puts "value: #{res.next_result()['value']}"
  else
    res.cause().print_stack_trace()
  end
}.start()