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Vert.x Web API Contract extends Vert.x Web to support OpenAPI 3, bringing to you a simple interface to build your router and mount security and validation handler.

If you are interested in building an application that routes API Requests to event bus, check out Vert.x Web API Service

Using Vert.x API Contract

To use Vert.x API Contract, add the following dependency to the dependencies section of your build descriptor:

  • Maven (in your pom.xml):

  • Gradle (in your build.gradle file):

dependencies {
 compile 'io.vertx:vertx-web-api-contract:3.6.3'

HTTP Requests validation without OpenAPI 3

Vert.x provides a validation framework that will validate requests for you and will put results of validation inside a container. To define a HTTPRequestValidationHandler:

// Create Validation Handler with some stuff
def validationHandler = HTTPRequestValidationHandler.create().addQueryParam("parameterName", ParameterType.INT, true).addFormParamWithPattern("formParameterName", "a{4}", true).addPathParam("pathParam", ParameterType.FLOAT)

Then you can mount your validation handler:

// BodyHandler is required to manage body parameters like forms or json body

router.get("/awesome/:pathParam").handler(validationHandler).handler({ routingContext ->
  // Get Request parameters container
  def params = routingContext.get("parsedParameters")

  // Get parameters
  def parameterName = params.queryParameter("parameterName").getInteger()
  def formParameterName = params.formParameter("formParameterName").getString()
  def pathParam = params.pathParameter("pathParam").getFloat()
}).failureHandler({ routingContext ->
  def failure = routingContext.failure()
  if (failure instanceof io.vertx.ext.web.api.validation.ValidationException) {
    // Something went wrong during validation!
    def validationErrorMessage = failure.getMessage()

If validation succeeds, It returns request parameters inside RequestParameters, otherwise It will throw a ValidationException

Types of request parameters

Every parameter has a type validator, a class that describes the expected type of parameter. A type validator validates the value, casts it in required language type and then loads it inside a RequestParameter object. There are three ways to describe the type of your parameter:

Handling parameters

Now you can handle parameter values:

def params = routingContext.get("parsedParameters")
def awesomeParameter = params.queryParameter("awesomeParameter")
if (awesomeParameter != null) {
  if (!awesomeParameter.isEmpty()) {
    // Parameter exists and isn't empty
    // ParameterTypeValidator mapped the parameter in equivalent language object
    def awesome = awesomeParameter.getInteger()
  } else {
    // Parameter exists, but it's empty
} else {
  // Parameter doesn't exist (it's not required)

As you can see, every parameter is mapped in respective language objects. You can also get a json body:

def body = params.body()
if (body != null) {
  def jsonBody = body.getJsonObject()

OpenAPI 3

Vert.x allows you to use your OpenApi 3 specification directly inside your code using the design first approach. Vert.x-Web provides:

  • OpenAPI 3 compliant API specification validation with automatic*loading of external Json schemas**

  • Automatic request validation

  • Automatic mount of security validation handlers

  • Automatic 501 response for not implemented operations

  • Router factory to provide all these features to users

You can also use the community project slush-vertx to generate server code from your OpenAPI 3 specification.

The router factory

You can create your web service based on OpenAPI3 specification with OpenAPI3RouterFactory. This class, as name says, is a router factory based on your OpenAPI 3 specification. OpenAPI3RouterFactory is intended to give you a really simple user interface to use OpenAPI 3 support. It includes:

  • Async loading of specification and its schema dependencies

  • Mount path with operationId or with combination of path and HTTP method

  • Automatic request parameters validation

  • Automatic convert OpenAPI style paths to Vert.x style paths

  • Lazy methods: operations (combination of paths and HTTP methods) are mounted in declaration order inside specification

  • Automatic mount of security validation handlers

Create a new router factory

To create a new router factory, Use method OpenAPI3RouterFactory.create. As location It accepts absolute paths, local paths and local or remote URLs (HTTP or file protocol).

For example:

OpenAPI3RouterFactory.create(vertx, "src/main/resources/petstore.yaml", { ar ->
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    // Spec loaded with success
    def routerFactory = ar.result()
  } else {
    // Something went wrong during router factory initialization
    def exception = ar.cause()

You can also construct a router factory from a remote spec:

OpenAPI3RouterFactory.create(vertx, "", { ar ->
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    // Spec loaded with success
    def routerFactory = ar.result()
  } else {
    // Something went wrong during router factory initialization
    def exception = ar.cause()

Or, you can also access a private remote spec by passing one or more AuthorizationValue:

Code not translatable

You can also modify the behaviours of the router factory with RouterFactoryOptions. For example you can ask to router factory to mount the validation failure handler but to not mount the not implemented handler as follows:

def routerFactory = ar.result()
// Create and mount options to router factory
def options = [


Mount the handlers

Now load your first operation handlers. To load an handler use addHandlerByOperationId. To load a failure handler use addFailureHandlerByOperationId

You can, of course,add multiple handlers to same operation*, without overwrite the existing ones.

For example:

routerFactory.addHandlerByOperationId("awesomeOperation", { routingContext ->
  def params = routingContext.get("parsedParameters")
  def body = params.body()
  def jsonBody = body.getJsonObject()
  // Do something with body
routerFactory.addFailureHandlerByOperationId("awesomeOperation", { routingContext ->
  // Handle failure
Add operations with operationId
Usage of combination of path and HTTP method is allowed, but it’s better to add operations handlers with operationId, for performance reasons and to avoid paths nomenclature errors

Now you can use parameter values as described above

Define security handlers

A security handler is defined by a combination of schema name and scope. You can mount only one security handler for a combination. For example:

routerFactory.addSecurityHandler("security_scheme_name", securityHandler)

You can of course use included Vert.x security handlers, for example:

routerFactory.addSecurityHandler("jwt_auth", JWTAuthHandler.create(jwtAuthProvider))

Customize the router factory behaviours

The router factory allows you to customize some behaviours during router generation with RouterFactoryOptions. Router factory can:

  • Mount a 501 Not Implemented handler for operations where you haven’t mounted any handler

  • Mount a 400 Bad Request handler that manages ValidationException

  • Mount the ResponseContentTypeHandler handler when needed

Give a deeper look at RouterFactoryOptions documentation

Generate the router

When you are ready, generate the router and use it:

def router = routerFactory.getRouter()

def server = vertx.createHttpServer([