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The Reactive PostgreSQL Client is a client for PostgreSQL with a straightforward API focusing on scalability and low overhead.

The client is reactive and non blocking, allowing to handle many database connections with a single thread.

  • Event driven

  • Lightweight

  • Built-in connection pooling

  • Prepared queries caching

  • Publish / subscribe using PostgreSQL NOTIFY/LISTEN

  • Batch and cursor

  • Row streaming

  • Command pipeling

  • RxJava 1 and RxJava 2

  • Direct memory to object without unnecessary copies

  • Java 8 Date and Time

  • SSL/TLS

  • Unix domain socket

  • HTTP/1.x CONNECT, SOCKS4a or SOCKS5 proxy support

Usage

To use the Reactive PostgreSQL Client add the following dependency to the dependencies section of your build descriptor:

  • Maven (in your pom.xml):

<dependency>
 <groupId>io.vertx</groupId>
 <artifactId>vertx-pg-client</artifactId>
 <version>3.8.4</version>
</dependency>
  • Gradle (in your build.gradle file):

dependencies {
 compile 'io.vertx:vertx-pg-client:3.8.4'
}

Getting started

Here is the simplest way to connect, query and disconnect

PgConnectOptions connectOptions = new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret");

// Pool options
PoolOptions poolOptions = new PoolOptions()
  .setMaxSize(5);

// Create the client pool
PgPool client = PgPool.pool(connectOptions, poolOptions);

// A simple query
client.query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id='julien'", ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> result = ar.result();
    System.out.println("Got " + result.size() + " rows ");
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }

  // Now close the pool
  client.close();
});

Connecting to PostgreSQL

Most of the time you will use a pool to connect to PostgreSQL:

PgConnectOptions connectOptions = new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret");

// Pool options
PoolOptions poolOptions = new PoolOptions()
  .setMaxSize(5);

// Create the pooled client
PgPool client = PgPool.pool(connectOptions, poolOptions);

The pooled client uses a connection pool and any operation will borrow a connection from the pool to execute the operation and release it to the pool.

If you are running with Vert.x you can pass it your Vertx instance:

PgConnectOptions connectOptions = new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret");

// Pool options
PoolOptions poolOptions = new PoolOptions()
  .setMaxSize(5);
// Create the pooled client
PgPool client = PgPool.pool(vertx, connectOptions, poolOptions);

You need to release the pool when you don’t need it anymore:

pool.close();

When you need to execute several operations on the same connection, you need to use a client connection.

You can easily get one from the pool:

PgConnectOptions connectOptions = new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret");

// Pool options
PoolOptions poolOptions = new PoolOptions()
  .setMaxSize(5);

// Create the pooled client
PgPool client = PgPool.pool(vertx, connectOptions, poolOptions);

// Get a connection from the pool
client.getConnection(ar1 -> {

  if (ar1.succeeded()) {

    System.out.println("Connected");

    // Obtain our connection
    SqlConnection conn = ar1.result();

    // All operations execute on the same connection
    conn.query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id='julien'", ar2 -> {
      if (ar2.succeeded()) {
        conn.query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id='emad'", ar3 -> {
          // Release the connection to the pool
          conn.close();
        });
      } else {
        // Release the connection to the pool
        conn.close();
      }
    });
  } else {
    System.out.println("Could not connect: " + ar1.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

Once you are done with the connection you must close it to release it to the pool, so it can be reused.

Sometimes you want to improve performance via Unix domain socket connection, we achieve this with Vert.x Native transports.

Make sure you have added the required netty-transport-native dependency in your classpath and enabled the Unix domain socket option.

PgConnectOptions connectOptions = new PgConnectOptions()
  .setHost("/var/run/postgresql")
  .setPort(5432)
  .setDatabase("the-db");

// Pool options
PoolOptions poolOptions = new PoolOptions()
  .setMaxSize(5);

// Create the pooled client
PgPool client = PgPool.pool(connectOptions, poolOptions);

// Create the pooled client with a vertx instance
// Make sure the vertx instance has enabled native transports
PgPool client2 = PgPool.pool(vertx, connectOptions, poolOptions);

More information can be found in the [Vert.x documentation](https://vertx.io/docs/vertx-core/java/#_native_transports).

Configuration

There are several alternatives for you to configure the client.

data object

A simple way to configure the client is to specify a PgConnectOptions data object.

PgConnectOptions connectOptions = new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret");

// Pool Options
PoolOptions poolOptions = new PoolOptions().setMaxSize(5);

// Create the pool from the data object
PgPool pool = PgPool.pool(vertx, connectOptions, poolOptions);

pool.getConnection(ar -> {
  // Handling your connection
});

You can also configure the generic properties with the setProperties or addProperty methods. Note setProperties will override the default client properties.

For example, you can set a default schema for the connection with adding a search_path property.

PgConnectOptions connectOptions = new PgConnectOptions();

// Set the default schema
connectOptions.addProperty("search_path", "myschema");

More information about the available properties can be found in the PostgreSQL Manuals.

connection uri

Apart from configuring with a PgConnectOptions data object, We also provide you an alternative way to connect when you want to configure with a connection URI:

String connectionUri = "postgresql://dbuser:[email protected]:3211/mydb";

// Create the pool from the connection URI
PgPool pool = PgPool.pool(connectionUri);

// Create the connection from the connection URI
PgConnection.connect(vertx, connectionUri, res -> {
  // Handling your connection
});

More information about connection string formats can be found in the PostgreSQL Manuals.

Currently the client supports the following parameter key words in connection uri

  • host

  • hostaddr

  • port

  • user

  • password

  • dbname

  • sslmode

  • properties including(application_name, fallback_application_name, search_path)

Note: configuring properties in connection URI will override the default properties.

environment variables

You can also use environment variables to set default connection setting values, this is useful when you want to avoid hard-coding database connection information. You can refer to the official documentation for more details. The following parameters are supported:

  • PGHOST

  • PGHOSTADDR

  • PGPORT

  • PGDATABASE

  • PGUSER

  • PGPASSWORD

  • PGSSLMODE

If you don’t specify a data object or a connection URI string to connect, environment variables will take precedence over them.

$ PGUSER=user \
 PGHOST=the-host \
 PGPASSWORD=secret \
 PGDATABASE=the-db \
 PGPORT=5432 \
 PGSSLMODE=DISABLE
PgPool pool = PgPool.pool();

// Create the connection from the environment variables
PgConnection.connect(vertx, res -> {
  // Handling your connection
});

Running queries

When you don’t need a transaction or run single queries, you can run queries directly on the pool; the pool will use one of its connection to run the query and return the result to you.

Here is how to run simple queries:

client.query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id='julien'", ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> result = ar.result();
    System.out.println("Got " + result.size() + " rows ");
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

Prepared queries

You can do the same with prepared queries.

The SQL string can refer to parameters by position, using the database syntax `$1`, `$2`, etc…​

client.preparedQuery("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id=$1", Tuple.of("julien"), ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    System.out.println("Got " + rows.size() + " rows ");
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

Query methods provides an asynchronous RowSet instance that works for SELECT queries

client.preparedQuery("SELECT first_name, last_name FROM users", ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    for (Row row : rows) {
      System.out.println("User " + row.getString(0) + " " + row.getString(1));
    }
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

or UPDATE/INSERT queries:

client.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO users (first_name, last_name) VALUES ($1, $2)", Tuple.of("Julien", "Viet"),  ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    System.out.println(rows.rowCount());
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

The Row gives you access to your data by index

System.out.println("User " + row.getString(0) + " " + row.getString(1));

or by name

System.out.println("User " + row.getString("first_name") + " " + row.getString("last_name"));

The client will not do any magic here and the column name is identified with the name in the table regardless of how your SQL text is.

You can access a wide variety of of types

String firstName = row.getString("first_name");
Boolean male = row.getBoolean("male");
Integer age = row.getInteger("age");

You can cache prepared queries:

connectOptions.setCachePreparedStatements(true);

Batches

You can execute prepared batch

List<Tuple> batch = new ArrayList<>();
batch.add(Tuple.of("julien", "Julien Viet"));
batch.add(Tuple.of("emad", "Emad Alblueshi"));

// Execute the prepared batch
client.preparedBatch("INSERT INTO USERS (id, name) VALUES ($1, $2)", batch, res -> {
  if (res.succeeded()) {

    // Process rows
    RowSet<Row> rows = res.result();
  } else {
    System.out.println("Batch failed " + res.cause());
  }
});

You can fetch generated keys with a 'RETURNING' clause in your query:

client.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO color (color_name) VALUES ($1), ($2), ($3) RETURNING color_id", Tuple.of("white", "red", "blue"), ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    System.out.println(rows.rowCount());
    for (Row row : rows) {
      System.out.println("generated key: " + row.getInteger("color_id"));
    }
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

Using connections

When you need to execute sequential queries (without a transaction), you can create a new connection or borrow one from the pool:

pool.getConnection(ar1 -> {
  if (ar1.succeeded()) {
    SqlConnection connection = ar1.result();

    connection.query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id='julien'", ar2 -> {
      if (ar1.succeeded()) {
        connection.query("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id='paulo'", ar3 -> {
          // Do something with rows and return the connection to the pool
          connection.close();
        });
      } else {
        // Return the connection to the pool
        connection.close();
      }
    });
  }
});

Prepared queries can be created:

connection.prepare("SELECT * FROM users WHERE first_name LIKE $1", ar1 -> {
  if (ar1.succeeded()) {
    PreparedQuery pq = ar1.result();
    pq.execute(Tuple.of("julien"), ar2 -> {
      if (ar2.succeeded()) {
        // All rows
        RowSet<Row> rows = ar2.result();
      }
    });
  }
});
Note
prepared query caching depends on the setCachePreparedStatements and does not depend on whether you are creating prepared queries or use direct prepared queries

PreparedQuery can perform efficient batching:

connection.prepare("INSERT INTO USERS (id, name) VALUES ($1, $2)", ar1 -> {
  if (ar1.succeeded()) {
    PreparedQuery prepared = ar1.result();

    // Create a query : bind parameters
    List<Tuple> batch = new ArrayList();

    // Add commands to the createBatch
    batch.add(Tuple.of("julien", "Julien Viet"));
    batch.add(Tuple.of("emad", "Emad Alblueshi"));

    prepared.batch(batch, res -> {
      if (res.succeeded()) {

        // Process rows
        RowSet<Row> rows = res.result();
      } else {
        System.out.println("Batch failed " + res.cause());
      }
    });
  }
});

Using transactions

Transactions with connections

You can execute transaction using SQL BEGIN/COMMIT/ROLLBACK, if you do so you must use a SqlConnection and manage it yourself.

Or you can use the transaction API of SqlConnection:

pool.getConnection(res -> {
  if (res.succeeded()) {

    // Transaction must use a connection
    SqlConnection conn = res.result();

    // Begin the transaction
    Transaction tx = conn.begin();

    // Various statements
    conn.query("INSERT INTO Users (first_name,last_name) VALUES ('Julien','Viet')", ar1 -> {
      if (ar1.succeeded()) {
        conn.query("INSERT INTO Users (first_name,last_name) VALUES ('Emad','Alblueshi')", ar2 -> {
          if (ar2.succeeded()) {
            // Commit the transaction
            tx.commit(ar3 -> {
              if (ar3.succeeded()) {
                System.out.println("Transaction succeeded");
              } else {
                System.out.println("Transaction failed " + ar3.cause().getMessage());
              }
              // Return the connection to the pool
              conn.close();
            });
          } else {
            // Return the connection to the pool
            conn.close();
          }
        });
      } else {
        // Return the connection to the pool
        conn.close();
      }
    });
  }
});

When PostgreSQL reports the current transaction is failed (e.g the infamous current transaction is aborted, commands ignored until end of transaction block), the transaction is rollbacked and the abortHandler is called:

tx.abortHandler(v -> {
  System.out.println("Transaction failed => rollbacked");
});

Simplified transaction API

When you use a pool, you can start a transaction directly on the pool.

It borrows a connection from the pool, begins the transaction and releases the connection to the pool when the transaction ends.

pool.begin(res -> {
  if (res.succeeded()) {

    // Get the transaction
    Transaction tx = res.result();

    // Various statements
    tx.query("INSERT INTO Users (first_name,last_name) VALUES ('Julien','Viet')", ar1 -> {
      if (ar1.succeeded()) {
        tx.query("INSERT INTO Users (first_name,last_name) VALUES ('Emad','Alblueshi')", ar2 -> {
          if (ar2.succeeded()) {
            // Commit the transaction
            // the connection will automatically return to the pool
            tx.commit(ar3 -> {
              if (ar3.succeeded()) {
                System.out.println("Transaction succeeded");
              } else {
                System.out.println("Transaction failed " + ar3.cause().getMessage());
              }
            });
          }
        });
      } else {
        // No need to close connection as transaction will abort and be returned to the pool
      }
    });
  }
});
Note
this code will not close the connection because it will always be released back to the pool when the transaction

Cursors and streaming

By default prepared query execution fetches all rows, you can use a Cursor to control the amount of rows you want to read:

connection.prepare("SELECT * FROM users WHERE first_name LIKE $1", ar1 -> {
  if (ar1.succeeded()) {
    PreparedQuery pq = ar1.result();

    // Cursors require to run within a transaction
    Transaction tx = connection.begin();

    // Create a cursor
    Cursor cursor = pq.cursor(Tuple.of("julien"));

    // Read 50 rows
    cursor.read(50, ar2 -> {
      if (ar2.succeeded()) {
        RowSet<Row> rows = ar2.result();

        // Check for more ?
        if (cursor.hasMore()) {
          // Repeat the process...
        } else {
          // No more rows - commit the transaction
          tx.commit();
        }
      }
    });
  }
});

Cursors shall be closed when they are released prematurely:

cursor.read(50, ar2 -> {
  if (ar2.succeeded()) {
    // Close the cursor
    cursor.close();
  }
});

A stream API is also available for cursors, which can be more convenient, specially with the Rxified version.

connection.prepare("SELECT * FROM users WHERE first_name LIKE $1", ar1 -> {
  if (ar1.succeeded()) {
    PreparedQuery pq = ar1.result();

    // Streams require to run within a transaction
    Transaction tx = connection.begin();

    // Fetch 50 rows at a time
    RowStream<Row> stream = pq.createStream(50, Tuple.of("julien"));

    // Use the stream
    stream.exceptionHandler(err -> {
      System.out.println("Error: " + err.getMessage());
    });
    stream.endHandler(v -> {
      tx.commit();
      System.out.println("End of stream");
    });
    stream.handler(row -> {
      System.out.println("User: " + row.getString("last_name"));
    });
  }
});

The stream read the rows by batch of 50 and stream them, when the rows have been passed to the handler, a new batch of 50 is read and so on.

The stream can be resumed or paused, the loaded rows will remain in memory until they are delivered and the cursor will stop iterating.

Note: PostreSQL destroys cursors at the end of a transaction, so the cursor API shall be used within a transaction, otherwise you will likely get the 34000 PostgreSQL error.

PostgreSQL type mapping

Currently the client supports the following PostgreSQL types

  • BOOLEAN (java.lang.Boolean)

  • INT2 (java.lang.Short)

  • INT4 (java.lang.Integer)

  • INT8 (java.lang.Long)

  • FLOAT4 (java.lang.Float)

  • FLOAT8 (java.lang.Double)

  • CHAR (java.lang.String)

  • VARCHAR (java.lang.String)

  • TEXT (java.lang.String)

  • ENUM (java.lang.String)

  • NAME (java.lang.String)

  • SERIAL2 (java.lang.Short)

  • SERIAL4 (java.lang.Integer)

  • SERIAL8 (java.lang.Long)

  • NUMERIC (io.vertx.sqlclient.data.Numeric)

  • UUID (java.util.UUID)

  • DATE (java.time.LocalDate)

  • TIME (java.time.LocalTime)

  • TIMETZ (java.time.OffsetTime)

  • TIMESTAMP (java.time.LocalDateTime)

  • TIMESTAMPTZ (java.time.OffsetDateTime)

  • INTERVAL (io.vertx.pgclient.data.Interval)

  • BYTEA (io.vertx.core.buffer.Buffer)

  • JSON (io.vertx.core.json.JsonObject, io.vertx.core.json.JsonArray, Number, Boolean, String, io.vertx.sqlclient.Tuple#JSON_NULL)

  • JSONB (io.vertx.core.json.JsonObject, io.vertx.core.json.JsonArray, Number, Boolean, String, io.vertx.sqlclient.Tuple#JSON_NULL)

  • POINT (io.vertx.pgclient.data.Point)

  • LINE (io.vertx.pgclient.data.Line)

  • LSEG (io.vertx.pgclient.data.LineSegment)

  • BOX (io.vertx.pgclient.data.Box)

  • PATH (io.vertx.pgclient.data.Path)

  • POLYGON (io.vertx.pgclient.data.Polygon)

  • CIRCLE (io.vertx.pgclient.data.Circle)

  • TSVECTOR (java.lang.String)

  • TSQUERY (java.lang.String)

Tuple decoding uses the above types when storing values, it also performs on the flu conversion the actual value when possible:

pool.query("SELECT 1::BIGINT \"VAL\"", ar -> {
  RowSet<Row> rowSet = ar.result();
  Row row = rowSet.iterator().next();

  // Stored as java.lang.Long
  Object value = row.getValue(0);

  // Convert to java.lang.Integer
  Integer intValue = row.getInteger(0);
});

Tuple encoding uses the above type mapping for encoding, unless the type is numeric in which case java.lang.Number is used instead:

pool.query("SELECT 1::BIGINT \"VAL\"", ar -> {
  RowSet<Row> rowSet = ar.result();
  Row row = rowSet.iterator().next();

  // Stored as java.lang.Long
  Object value = row.getValue(0);

  // Convert to java.lang.Integer
  Integer intValue = row.getInteger(0);
});

Arrays of these types are supported.

Handling JSON

PostgreSQL JSON and JSONB types are represented by the following Java types:

  • String

  • Number

  • Boolean

  • io.vertx.core.json.JsonObject

  • io.vertx.core.json.JsonArray

  • io.vertx.sqlclient.Tuple#JSON_NULL for representing the JSON null literal

Tuple tuple = Tuple.of(
  Tuple.JSON_NULL,
  new JsonObject().put("foo", "bar"),
  3);

// Retrieving json
Object value = tuple.getValue(0); // Expect JSON_NULL

//
value = tuple.get(JsonObject.class, 1); // Expect JSON object

//
value = tuple.get(Integer.class, 2); // Expect 3
value = tuple.getInteger(2); // Expect 3

Handling NUMERIC

The Numeric Java type is used to represent the PostgreSQL NUMERIC type.

Numeric numeric = row.get(Numeric.class, 0);
if (numeric.isNaN()) {
  // Handle NaN
} else {
  BigDecimal value = numeric.bigDecimalValue();
}

Handling arrays

Arrays are available on Tuple and Row:

Tuple tuple = Tuple.of(new String[]{ "a", "tuple", "with", "arrays" });

// Add a string array to the tuple
tuple.addStringArray(new String[]{"another", "array"});

// Get the first array of string
String[] array = tuple.getStringArray(0);

Handling custom types

Strings are used to represent custom types, both sent to and returned from Postgres.

You can read from PostgreSQL and get the custom type as a string

client.preparedQuery("SELECT address, (address).city FROM address_book WHERE id=$1", Tuple.of(3),  ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    for (Row row : rows) {
      System.out.println("Full Address " + row.getString(0) + ", City " + row.getString(1));
    }
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

You can also write to PostgreSQL by providing a string

client.preparedQuery("INSERT INTO address_book (id, address) VALUES ($1, $2)", Tuple.of(3, "('Anytown', 'Second Ave', false)"),  ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    System.out.println(rows.rowCount());
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

Text search is handling using java String

client.preparedQuery("SELECT to_tsvector( $1 ) @@ to_tsquery( $2 )", Tuple.of("fat cats ate fat rats", "fat & rat"),  ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    for (Row row : rows) {
      System.out.println("Match : " + row.getBoolean(0));
    }
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

tsvector and tsquery can be fetched from db using java String

client.preparedQuery("SELECT to_tsvector( $1 ), to_tsquery( $2 )", Tuple.of("fat cats ate fat rats", "fat & rat"),  ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    RowSet<Row> rows = ar.result();
    for (Row row : rows) {
      System.out.println("Vector : " + row.getString(0) + ", query : "+row.getString(1));
    }
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

Collector queries

You can use Java collectors with the query API:

Collector<Row, ?, Map<Long, String>> collector = Collectors.toMap(
  row -> row.getLong("id"),
  row -> row.getString("last_name"));

// Run the query with the collector
client.query("SELECT * FROM users",
  collector,
  ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    SqlResult<Map<Long, String>> result = ar.result();

    // Get the map created by the collector
    Map<Long, String> map = result.value();
    System.out.println("Got " + map);
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});

The collector processing must not keep a reference on the Row as there is a single row used for processing the entire set.

The Java Collectors provides many interesting predefined collectors, for example you can create easily create a string directly from the row set:

Collector<Row, ?, String> collector = Collectors.mapping(
  row -> row.getString("last_name"),
  Collectors.joining(",", "(", ")")
);

// Run the query with the collector
client.query("SELECT * FROM users",
  collector,
  ar -> {
    if (ar.succeeded()) {
      SqlResult<String> result = ar.result();

      // Get the string created by the collector
      String list = result.value();
      System.out.println("Got " + list);
    } else {
      System.out.println("Failure: " + ar.cause().getMessage());
    }
  });

Pub/sub

PostgreSQL supports pub/sub communication channels.

You can set a notificationHandler to receive PostgreSQL notifications:

connection.notificationHandler(notification -> {
  System.out.println("Received " + notification.getPayload() + " on channel " + notification.getChannel());
});

connection.query("LISTEN some-channel", ar -> {
  System.out.println("Subscribed to channel");
});

The PgSubscriber is a channel manager managing a single connection that provides per channel subscription:

PgSubscriber subscriber = PgSubscriber.subscriber(vertx, new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret")
);

// You can set the channel before connect
subscriber.channel("channel1").handler(payload -> {
  System.out.println("Received " + payload);
});

subscriber.connect(ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {

    // Or you can set the channel after connect
    subscriber.channel("channel2").handler(payload -> {
      System.out.println("Received " + payload);
    });
  }
});

The channel name that is given to the channel method will be the exact name of the channel as held by PostgreSQL for sending notifications. Note this is different than the representation of the channel name in SQL, and internally PgSubscriber will prepare the submitted channel name as a quoted identifier:

PgSubscriber subscriber = PgSubscriber.subscriber(vertx, new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret")
);

subscriber.connect(ar -> {
    if (ar.succeeded()) {
      // Complex channel name - name in PostgreSQL requires a quoted ID
      subscriber.channel("Complex.Channel.Name").handler(payload -> {
        System.out.println("Received " + payload);
      });
      subscriber.channel("Complex.Channel.Name").subscribeHandler(subscribed -> {
              subscriber.actualConnection().query(
                              "NOTIFY \"Complex.Channel.Name\", 'msg'", notified -> {
                      System.out.println("Notified \"Complex.Channel.Name\"");
              });
      });

      // PostgreSQL simple ID's are forced lower-case
      subscriber.channel("simple_channel").handler(payload -> {
          System.out.println("Received " + payload);
      });
      subscriber.channel("simple_channel").subscribeHandler(subscribed -> {
              // The following simple channel identifier is forced to lower case
          subscriber.actualConnection().query(
                        "NOTIFY Simple_CHANNEL, 'msg'", notified -> {
                        System.out.println("Notified simple_channel");
                });
      });

      // The following channel name is longer than the current
      // (NAMEDATALEN = 64) - 1 == 63 character limit and will be truncated
      subscriber.channel(
                      "aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbb"
                      ).handler(payload -> {
          System.out.println("Received " + payload);
      });
    }
  });

You can provide a reconnect policy as a function that takes the number of retries as argument and returns an amountOfTime value:

  • when amountOfTime < 0: the subscriber is closed and there is no retry

  • when amountOfTime = 0: the subscriber retries to connect immediately

  • when amountOfTime > 0: the subscriber retries after amountOfTime milliseconds

PgSubscriber subscriber = PgSubscriber.subscriber(vertx, new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret")
);

// Reconnect at most 10 times after 100 ms each
subscriber.reconnectPolicy(retries -> {
  if (retries < 10) {
    return 100L;
  } else {
    return -1L;
  }
});

The default policy is to not reconnect.

Cancelling Request

PostgreSQL supports cancellation of requests in progress. You can cancel inflight requests using cancelRequest. Cancelling a request opens a new connection to the server and cancels the request and then close the connection.

connection.query("SELECT pg_sleep(20)", ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    // imagine this is a long query and is still running
    System.out.println("Query success");
  } else {
    // the server will abort the current query after cancelling request
    System.out.println("Failed to query due to " + ar.cause().getMessage());
  }
});
connection.cancelRequest(ar -> {
  if (ar.succeeded()) {
    System.out.println("Cancelling request has been sent");
  } else {
    System.out.println("Failed to send cancelling request");
  }
});

The cancellation signal might or might not have any effect — for example, if it arrives after the backend has finished processing the query, then it will have no effect. If the cancellation is effective, it results in the current command being terminated early with an error message.

More information can be found in the official documentation.

Using SSL/TLS

To configure the client to use SSL connection, you can configure the PgConnectOptions like a Vert.x NetClient. All SSL modes are supported and you are able to configure sslmode. The client is in DISABLE SSL mode by default. ssl parameter is kept as a mere shortcut for setting sslmode. setSsl(true) is equivalent to setSslMode(VERIFY_CA) and setSsl(false) is equivalent to setSslMode(DISABLE).

PgConnectOptions options = new PgConnectOptions()
  .setPort(5432)
  .setHost("the-host")
  .setDatabase("the-db")
  .setUser("user")
  .setPassword("secret")
  .setSslMode(SslMode.VERIFY_CA)
  .setPemTrustOptions(new PemTrustOptions().addCertPath("/path/to/cert.pem"));

PgConnection.connect(vertx, options, res -> {
  if (res.succeeded()) {
    // Connected with SSL
  } else {
    System.out.println("Could not connect " + res.cause());
  }
});

More information can be found in the Vert.x documentation.

Using a proxy

You can also configure the client to use an HTTP/1.x CONNECT, SOCKS4a or SOCKS5 proxy.

More information can be found in the Vert.x documentation.

RxJava 2 API

The Rxified API supports RxJava 1 and RxJava 2, the following examples use RxJava 2.

Single<RowSet<Row>> single = pool.rxQuery("SELECT * FROM users WHERE id='julien'");

// Execute the query
single.subscribe(result -> {
  System.out.println("Got " + result.size() + " rows ");
}, err -> {
  System.out.println("Failure: " + err.getMessage());
});

Streaming

RxJava 2 supports Observable and Flowable types, these are exposed using the RowStream that you can get from a PreparedQuery:

Observable<Row> observable = pool.rxBegin() // Cursors require a transaction
  .flatMapObservable(tx -> tx
    .rxPrepare("SELECT * FROM users WHERE first_name LIKE $1")
    .flatMapObservable(preparedQuery -> {
      // Fetch 50 rows at a time
      RowStream<Row> stream = preparedQuery.createStream(50, Tuple.of("julien"));
      return stream.toObservable();
    })
    // Commit the transaction after usage
    .doAfterTerminate(tx::commit));

// Then subscribe
observable.subscribe(row -> {
  System.out.println("User: " + row.getString("last_name"));
}, err -> {
  System.out.println("Error: " + err.getMessage());
}, () -> {
  System.out.println("End of stream");
});

The same example using Flowable:

Flowable<Row> flowable = pool.rxBegin()  // Cursors require a transaction
  .flatMapPublisher(tx -> tx.rxPrepare("SELECT * FROM users WHERE first_name LIKE $1")
    .flatMapPublisher(preparedQuery -> {
      // Fetch 50 rows at a time
      RowStream<Row> stream = preparedQuery.createStream(50, Tuple.of("julien"));
      return stream.toFlowable();
    })
    // Commit the transaction after usage
    .doAfterTerminate(tx::commit));

// Then subscribe
flowable.subscribe(new Subscriber<Row>() {

  private Subscription sub;

  @Override
  public void onSubscribe(Subscription subscription) {
    sub = subscription;
    subscription.request(1);
  }

  @Override
  public void onNext(Row row) {
    sub.request(1);
    System.out.println("User: " + row.getString("last_name"));
  }

  @Override
  public void onError(Throwable err) {
    System.out.println("Error: " + err.getMessage());
  }

  @Override
  public void onComplete() {
    System.out.println("End of stream");
  }
});

Transaction

The simplified transaction API allows to easily write transactional asynchronous flows:

Completable completable = pool
  .rxBegin()
  .flatMapCompletable(tx -> tx
    .rxQuery("INSERT INTO Users (first_name,last_name) VALUES ('Julien','Viet')")
    .flatMap(result -> tx.rxQuery("INSERT INTO Users (first_name,last_name) VALUES ('Emad','Alblueshi')"))
    .flatMapCompletable(result -> tx.rxCommit()));

completable.subscribe(() -> {
  // Transaction succeeded
}, err -> {
  // Transaction failed
});